The Ultimate guide to learn web development from scratch
10 min read
Developing an App or a website typically comes down to knowing 3 main languages:
HTML. And while it sounds quite complicated, once you know what you are doing, understanding web technology and the way it works becomes significantly easier. We present you with an introduction to web technologies and the latest web technologies we used in our project. Now, let’s take a look.
What's Web Technology?
You have probably heard the term “web development technologies” before, but did you ever think about what it actually means? Since computers can’t communicate with each other the way people do, they require codes instead. Web technologies are the markup languages and multimedia packages computers use to communicate.
Understanding to HTML
When Steve Jobs refused to allow Flash on iOS devices, he argued that HTML5 could do everything Flash did.
He wasn't being entirely honest - the reality distortion field was strong that day - but ultimately Apple won and Adobe didn't; HTML5, not Flash, is the technology that's transforming the web. So what exactly is it, and what does it want from us?
What's so Great about HTML?
HTML5 has been designed to deliver almost everything you'd want to do online without requiring additional software such as browser plugins. It does everything from animation to apps, music to movies, and can also be used to build incredibly complicated applications that run in your browser.
There's more. HTML5 isn't proprietary, so you don't need to pay royalties to use it. It's also cross-platform, which means it doesn't care whether you're using a tablet or a smartphone, a netbook, notebook or Ultrabook or a Smart TV: if your browser supports HTML5, it should work flawlessly. Inevitably, it's a bit more complicated than that. More about that in a moment.
What does HTML do?
We've come a long way since HTML could barely handle a simple page layout. HTML5 can be used to write web applications that still work when you're not connected to the net; to tell websites where you are physically located; to handle high definition video; and to deliver extraordinary graphics.
Resources to learn HTML
- w3schools - Best Resource for Beginner.
- Mozilla Developer (MDN)
- Free Code Camp Full HTML course
- [Traversy Media YouTube Channel - HTML Crash course
Cascading Style Sheets, fondly referred to as CSS, is a simple design language intended to simplify the process of making web pages presentable.
CSS handles the look and feel of part of a web page. Using CSS, you can control the color of the text, the style of fonts, the spacing between paragraphs, how columns are sized and laid out, what background images or colors are used, layout designs, variations in display for different devices and screen sizes as well as a variety of other effects.
CSS is easy to learn and understand, but it provides powerful control over the presentation of an HTML document. Most commonly, CSS is combined with the markup languages HTML or XHTML.
Advantages of CSS
- CSS saves time_ You can write CSS once and then reuse the same sheet in multiple HTML pages. You can define a style for each HTML element and apply it to as many Web pages as you want.
- Pages load faster_ If you are using CSS, you do not need to write HTML tag attributes every time. Just write one CSS rule of a tag and apply it to all the occurrences of that tag. So less code means faster download times.
- Easy maintenance_ To make a global change, simply change the style, and all elements in all the web pages will be updated automatically.
- Superior styles to HTML_ CSS has a much wider array of attributes than HTML, so you can give a far better look to your HTML page in comparison to HTML attributes.
- Multiple Device Compatibility_ Style sheets allow content to be optimized for more than one type of device. By using the same HTML document, different versions of a website can be presented for handheld devices such as PDA and cell phones or for printing.
- Global web standards_ Now HTML attributes are being deprecated, and it is being recommended to use CSS. So it's a good idea to start using CSS in all the HTML pages to make them compatible to future browsers.
Who Creates and Maintains CSS?
CSS is created and maintained through a group of people within the W3C called the CSS Working Group. The CSS Working Group creates documents called specifications. When a specification has been discussed and officially ratified by the W3C members, it becomes a recommendation.
These ratified specifications are called recommendations because the W3C has no control over the actual implementation of the language. Independent companies and organizations create that software.
NOTE − The World Wide Web Consortium, or W3C, is a group that makes recommendations about how the Internet works and how it should evolve.
Cascading Style Sheets level 1 (CSS1) came out of W3C as a recommendation in December 1996. This version describes the CSS language as well as a simple visual formatting model for all the HTML tags.
CSS2 became a W3C recommendation in May 1998 and builds on CSS1. This version adds support for media-specific style sheets e.g. printers and aural devices, downloadable fonts, element positioning and tables.
And of course the latest version of CSS until now is version 3, it comes with a lot of features and improvements.
Resource to Learn CSS
- Learn CSS from W3schools
- Learn CSS from Mozilla Developer Website
- CSS from Codeacademy
- [CSS The Complete Course from freeCodeCamp and all what you need
- CSS crash course CSS Crash course from Traversy Media
The latest version of the language is ECMAScript 2018 which was released in June 2018.
Web App Building Blocks
- HTML is a markup language that creates the skeleton of the web page. All the paragraphs, sections, images, headings and text are written in HTML. The content appears on the website in the order they are written in HTML (We Talk About it Above)
- CSS controls the style and the additional aspects of the layout. CSS is used to create the design of the website creating the colors, fonts, columns, borders, etc. It takes the website from plain text elements to colorful designs (We Talk About it above also).
The browser will then grab everything linked to the HTML, like images and CSS files. The CSS information comes from the CSS parser.
- Crash course from Travery Media
PHP (recursive acronym for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a widely-used open source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.
Instead of lots of commands to output HTML (as seen in C or Perl), PHP pages contain HTML with embedded code that does "something" (in this case, output "Hi, I'm a PHP script!"). The PHP code is enclosed in special start and end processing instructions <?php and ?> that allow you to jump into and out of "PHP mode."
The best things in using PHP are that it is extremely simple for a newcomer, but offers many advanced features for a professional programmer. Don't be afraid reading the long list of PHP's features. You can jump in, in a short time, and start writing simple scripts in a few hours.
How PHP Interacts With MySQL Databases?
PHP is particularly good at interacting with MySQL databases, which opens endless possibilities.
You can write user-submitted information to a database as well as retrieve information from the database. This allows you to create pages on the fly using the contents of the database.
You can even perform complex tasks like setting up a login system, create a website search feature, or keep your store's product catalog and inventory online. You can also use PHP and MySQL to set up an automated picture gallery to showcase products.
Resources To learn PHP
- Learn From W3schools
- Learn PHP from Learn-php.org
- Complete Course from freeCodeCamp
- PHP Tutorial for Beginners from NetNinja
MySQL was originally launched all the way back in 1995. Since then, it’s gone through a couple of changes in ownership/stewardship, before ending up at the Oracle Corporation in 2010. While Oracle is in charge now, MySQL is still open-source software, which means that you can freely use and modify it.
The name comes from putting together “My” – the name of the co-founder’s daughter – with SQL – the abbreviation of Structured Query Language, which is a programming language that helps you access and manage data in a relational database.
Resources to learn MySQL
When it comes to starting a career in web development, getting started can be the hardest part. But once you do, you might be surprised at just how much you can learn in just a single day with the online resources available. Then it is just a matter of mastering your skills toward your new career. Hopefully, these web developer resources can help you along the way.